- Grapes have scientific name Vitis vinifera. Grapes are semi-temperate fruits (warm temperate), grown mainly in Europe such as France, Italy, Portugal, Russia … In addition, they are also grown in North and Central America. The countries of tropical Asia also grow but occupy a small part as in India, Thailand, Philippines … According to 1983 statistics, worldwide grape production of about 65 million tons (more than citrus and bananas) , of which Europe accounts for about 45 million, the Americas about 11 million, Asia only about 7.5 million tons. The productivity is quite large, from 5.2 to 27.0 tons / ha, the highest is the Netherlands and India.
In our country, grapes grow from north to south. In the North, sporadic planting, productivity and poor quality. The famous concentrated grape area in Phan Rang (Ninh Thuan) with an area of 2,000 hectares, in addition to planting quite popular in North Binh Thuan and South Khanh Hoa. Grapes in our country are mainly eaten fresh domestically, the export and processing capacity is still very low.
- In Phan Rang, vines can be harvested 2 times a year or 2 years 5 seasons. The winter-spring grape harvest in February – March gives the best yield and quality, followed by the Summer-Autumn crop in July – August; Autumn-Winter crop in October – November yields and the lowest quality due to heavy rain. The grape yield in Phan Rang is over 20 tons, particularly up to 60 tons / ha, comparable to other countries with high productivity in the world, but it is unstable due to insufficient technical investment.
- Botanical characteristics Vine The vine belongs to the Grape family (Ampelidaceae), a perennial fruit tree. The vine body is a type of herbaceous, climbing plant. From the trunk and branches grow the tendrils on the opposite side of the leaf. Tides can branch to attach to the climbing rig to keep the tree steady. The leaves are single, heart shaped, surrounded by many notches like jagged. The roots are of the clustered root, mostly at a depth of 30-60 cm and spread around the crown. The hermaphroditic flowers grow in clusters on the branches, small in size, light blue, some grapes (mostly of American origin) have incomplete flower forms, only female or male, open anthers. many at around 8 am, coinciding with the maximum flowering time so the ability to pollinate is quite high, can reach 80 – 90%. The time from budding to flower formation averages 30 – 40 days. Grapes are small in size, round in diameter with an average of 1.5 – 3.0 cm, thin skin slightly sticking to the flesh of the fruit, when ripe, red or purple green, depending on color. In the fruit there are some small seeds, there are also seedless grapes. Time from fruiting to fully ripe fruits averaged 50 – 60 days
- Vine is suitable for dry climate, little rain and plenty of sunshine, not too high temperature. The climate is cloudy, rainy, and high humidity is the biggest obstacle for the growth and development of vines, pests and diseases also cause great harm. Vines can be grown on many types of soil, from coarse sandy soil, mixed soil with gravel to heavy meat with different levels of fertility if properly invested and properly technical. However, it is not recommended to grow on heavy soils, shallow farming, poorly drained, saline soils and unproduced soils. Vines want to have good yield and fruit quality should be provided with a variety of macronutrients such as protein, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium … and also trace elements such as zinc, iron, manganese, boron, copper. . Lack or excess of one of these elements affects the normal growth and development of grapes.
Natural farming methods. As follows: Regarding fertilizer: Source of decomposed animal manure, all kinds of compost from fish, soybean residue, peanuts, seaweeds is completely natural, minimizing the types of chemical fertilizers that make up grit and chemical fertilizers. destroying beneficial soil microorganisms. The grass is cut and covered with the soil to create organic humus for the soil, an environment for beneficial microorganisms, symbiotic fungi, and crickets to dig and make the soil more open and porous. Disease prevention and treatment: The natural environment created by SW seems to have all kinds of microorganisms, insects that are resistant to the pathogen, in addition to the natural and biological compounds applied at SW. Extracts from neem, vinegar fermented from apples, EM preparations, BT pesticides (BT is the only poisonous microorganism with pests, not harmful to humans, animals ..) In addition to being surrounded by chrysanthemums, insects often stay away from flowers.
Irrigation and care system: All are irrigated by a sprinkler irrigation system, water saving 50% compared to overflow irrigation that people are using. Clusters of grapes are carefully wrapped with Nano bags. The vines are well-cared for by the hands of farmers, according to the engineering and control of the chief engineer, all documented. Each vine is numbered and recorded from the date of planting until harvesting, ensuring traceability of the product. Vine grafted after 1 month, grape grafts were conducted, the two lines chosen by the company were green grapes NH0148 and red grapes NH0152 (also known as nail grapes, witch grapes), in addition to edible grapes. leaves (used with lamb, goat, cow …) and wine grapes.